Monthly Archives: October 2016

Military Feature Gary Bauer: Air Force Navigator-Bombardier Flying High in Legal Profession

WMU-Cooley, as a military friendly and designated Yellow Ribbon School, talks to its military students, faculty and graduates about their journey from the military to law school and about their career goals. October’s monthly feature is WMU-Cooley Law School Professor Gary Bauer. Professor Bauer was a Captain in the U.S. Air Force and a Navigator-Bombardier on B-52 and KC 135 aircraft.

Military rank and title: Captain, U.S. Air Force, Navigator-Bombardier on B-52 and KC 135 aircraft

Decision to go to law school and why you choose WMU-Cooley: My decision was based upon a return on my investment. I was 38 when I attended law school for the first time. A person can practice law without limitations in spite of physical limitations as long the brain functions. So I figured the length of my career projected well into my 70s, if I chose to work that long. Also, the flexibility of a law degree gave me options geographically, subject matter choices, business settings, and whether I worked for someone else or independently. It was the return on my investment that drove my decision.

Professor Gary Bauer was a Captain in the U.S. Air Force and Navigator-Bombardier. He proudly displays a photo in his office of the B-52 and KC 135 aircraft he flew during service.

Professor Gary Bauer was a Captain in the U.S. Air Force and Navigator-Bombardier. He proudly displays a photo in his office of the B-52 and KC 135 aircraft he flew during service.

Military background: I spent six years in the Air Force after graduating from Purdue University. After my enlistment period was over, I went to work for a Japanese company as a Regional Sales Manager and covered up to five states. I did that for six years until the company pulled their operations out of the United States. It was then that I need to decide what to do for the rest of my life  –  law was it! No contest. This past summer I did a blog story I called Typhoon June and I got Personal. The story talks about about the time I flew right through a Typhoon, as ordered to do so, during the time of the Vietnam War. The story not only talks about the risks inherent with that task, but how, when you experience proximity to death, it changes you and makes it possible to better appreciate the life you have and what is really important in your life.

Future goals and why veterans make great lawyers: As a full-time professor of law, I love working with students who are hungry for knowledge and guidance, so I want to keep doing what I love to do — why would I want to do anything else? As far as why veterans make great lawyers, both military and a legal careers are perfect training in leadership. Plus, those with a military background know how to follow the chain of command, which is similar to the law and process. Individuals with a military background also know how to handle a competitive, adversarial system. You are trained to deal with the stress of combat and are able to make quick and accurate decisions – difficult decisions under stressful situations. I also feel that the military is a diverse and accepting culture, as is the law. There is a maturity about those in the military, along with their families. They know about responsibility, along with good time management skills and discipline. I also feel as though those with a military background have settled down – they have seen other cultures, experienced command subordination and the stresses of battle. Some would say they have hardened and are willing to follow instructions. It has been my experience that many of my very best students are former military members. Military students can also take advantage of the GI Bill – keeping debt load down or nearly zero at WMU-Cooley, especially if you attend part-time and remain working and take advantage of scholarships. Again, I truly feel that a legal career is one of the greatest and most versatile careers, in terms of location, subject matter and diversity of client base, and is one of the longest productive life career opportunities.

Tell us a little about you: Recently recognized by the American Bar Association with the Solo And Small Firm Trainer Award, also recognized this year by the Solo Section of the State Bar and will soon be awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award for the work I do helping students find their path to success. I come from Fort Wayne, Indiana and I am one of 12 children raised to be independent and productive members of society. I have a blog, which I highly recommend. Read “Is Your Client a 20 Footer?” or “Avoid the Dog in a Basket” which are just two of well over 100 posts. And for military vets, read my post concerning Typhoon June and how I had to fly right through it.

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Having Difficulty Understanding Legal Mumbo Jumbo? More Push For Plain Language

Did you know that 88 percent of people in the United States have some trouble understanding health information? Or did you think that percentage was higher? Any way you look at it, nobody is surprised by that number, especially WMU-Cooley Professor Christopher Trudeau. Read Professor Trudeau’s Oct. 25, 2016 article ‘The Public Speaks’: one man’s motivation to simplify legal communication‘ in
Legal mumbo-jumbo

trudeau_christopherProfessor Christopher Trudeau teaches Torts, Property, and courses in legal research and writing and is a zealous advocate for plain language. He has focused much of his recent research on combating archaic, traditional language in law, health care, government, and business. The Oct. 25, 2016 article leads up to Clarity 2016, and reflects upon what drove Professor Trudeau to initiate a worldwide survey to better understand legal communication.



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Selling a Haunted House? Legal Experts Give Advice on Scary Business

It’s that time of year. October 31st is hiding around the corner. Halloween and haunted houses. Both scary business. WMU-Cooley Law School Professors give practical advice to home owners with chilling concerns for more than just one day out of the year.

Haunted House

trudeau_christopherWMU-Cooley Professor Christopher Trudeau teaches Stambovsky v. Ackley in his Property I class. The case covers the disclosures of paranormal activity during the sale of a home. Professor Trudeau has also done extensive research on other statutes and laws regarding such cases. For instance, there is a law in Louisiana that requires individuals to disclose whether their house has a reputation of being haunted. Other cases actually cause people to disclose that a house ISN’T haunted as a marketing tool.

“Under Stambovsky, when a homeowner tells others their home is haunted, they would have to disclose this information,” says Professor Trudeau.  “If a home has a reputation, or is known as a haunted house, it will need to be disclosed. The house in the Stambovskycase had both the reputation and the media coverage about it being haunted to require that it be disclosed.”

Professor Renalia DuBose had this to say.

“Depending on how much the seller thinks the home is haunted and the more an individual has publicly spoke about the haunted activities dictates what needs to be disclosed. If it is just some inkling, one would not have to disclose it being haunted. Disclosures vary by the level of certainty of the owner. The more likely an individual thinks a home is haunted, the more likely a disclosure is expected.”

hastings_christopherProfessor Chris Hastings adds that “Under the common law, the familiar rule is “caveat emptor,” which is Latin for “buyer beware,” but many inroads are being made upon that rule, by consumer protection statutes, real estate disclosure laws, and evolution of common law doctrine. Perhaps the new rule is “non-discloser beware,”  or “keep secrets at your own risk.”

As you can see, selling a home can be more than just scary business – especially if you think your home is haunted.

Eerie questions answered by Professor Christopher Trudeau.

Let’s say you believe your home is haunted and you want to sell it, do you have to tell a prospective buyer?
This is different by state or even local ordinance. In most places a home seller would not need to disclose their home is haunted. Various states have stigma statutes, such as, if there was a murder or a person died in the home with HIV. These are not required to be disclosed. It protects the homeowner from having to disclose such things.

Under Stambovsky, would you only have to disclose this information if you’ve previously told others the house is haunted?
Yes, one would have to disclose this information. If a home has a reputation or is known as haunted it will need to be disclosed. The house in Stambovsky had the reputation and has had media coverage about it being haunted.

What about psychologically affected properties?
This will differ by state, but under Stambovsky it depends on what others know and do not know. It would be a positive thing to disclose under good faith.

Would any belief that a home is haunted be covered under that?
Depends on how much the seller thinks it is haunted and the more an individual has publicly spoke about the haunted activities. If it is just some inkling, one would not have to disclose, so it would very on the amount of certainty of the owner. The more likely and individual thinks a home is haunted the more likely a disclosure is expected.

Haunting coverage

Orlando Business Journal – 7 things to know today and what you need to know before selling a haunted house

Detroit Legal News – Cooley professors discuss haunted house law

RIS Media’s housecall – Are There Laws for Selling a Haunted House?

WWMT – Buying a haunted house in West Michigan

WOOD TV – Selling a ‘haunted’ house in Michigan

WOOD News Radio – Selling a ‘haunted’ house in Michigan

WKZO – Selling a Haunted House? Legal Experts Give Advice on Scary Business

WUSF – Scary Thought: Buying A Haunted House In Florida

Grand Rapids Business Journal – Nondisclosure can haunt real estate deals

Newsome Team Realtors – Are There Laws for Selling a Haunted House?

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Nikki Filizetti Racine: Journey to Health Changes Lives, One Step at Time

WMU-Cooley 2001 graduate Nikki Filizetti Racine is Detroit Medical Center’s 2016 Epic Heart HeroNIKKI’S STORY started on August 14, 1992. “It was a day that literally took my breath away. I was 16, cruising around Marquette, Michigan with two of my high-school girlfriends, young and carefree. We were at a stop sign when I suddenly saw headlights and everything went black. The next thing I knew, I was strapped to a stretcher, unable to see, a neck brace in place, and being placed in an ambulance.”


“I remember the doctor coming into my hospital room that evening and telling me that I was incredibly lucky: I had nearly been paralyzed from the neck down. In a matter of seconds, everything had changed. My basketball career had come to a halt, my short-term memory was drastically affected, and my freedom was gone. All that I could control was the food that I put into my mouth … or didn’t.

I regained my health, fought back from my closed-head injury, and — on September 15, 2001 — I earned my law degree. This was the first time in my life that I was truly proud of myself and what I could achieve. With the ups in life come the downs, however. Less than six years later, thanks to a root canal gone drastically wrong, I became victim to a rampant infection that ate away a large portion of my jawbone. After countless surgeries and procedures, I had to have all of my teeth pulled. This was an excruciating experience; for years, I was unable to chew and properly nourish my body and, as a result, my heart continued to weaken. I remained unaware of what my heart was going through until 2009, when my husband went to Australia on a fishing trip. A few days after he left, my heart felt like it was going to beat out of my chest.


Ironically, my husband is an ER Physician but, with him being away and unreachable, I had to take matters into my own hands: I headed to the very Emergency Room where my husband was employed. There, I learned that my immune system had been severely weakened from my dental nightmare and, as a result, my body could not fight off infection. I was diagnosed with Viral Cardiomyopathy; my heart was functioning at only 30 percent. A bicuspid aortic valve (heart murmur) was discovered during this time, making it more difficult for the weakened heart muscle to pump. My cardiologist reported that there was a 50 percent chance that I would need a valve replacement in the future.

I was so scared; I still had so much to accomplish. I desperately wanted to have children. I wanted to make a difference in the world. I took my heart health into my hands and I concentrated on my healing. Nearly two years later, an echocardiogram showed that my heart function had improved to nearly normal. My husband and I were concerned with the cardiac stress pregnancy might cause, however. After several consultations, we learned that a risk of relapse was indeed possible with pregnancy. Knowing this, we chose to create our family through adoption. We soon received a call from our adoption agency that a baby boy had been born, and we had been chosen to become his parents. My joy was indescribable: I was now a mommy. I now had another reason to remain healthy and to keep my heart happy. We have since added a beautiful little boy from Ethiopia to our family.


My husband and I continue to live a healthy lifestyle and promote wellness among our family and friends. I have completed two full marathons and numerous shorter distances, and I am currently training for my third (and bucket-list) marathon, the New York City Marathon in November 2016. In 2012, I became the Director of Fund Development and Outreach for Adoption Associates, Inc., the very agency through which we had adopted our baby boy. I’d finally found my niche. I raise funds to help other children find their forever families. I created the annual Touched by Adoption 5K Run/Walk, where we celebrate adoption while promoting a healthy lifestyle. My heart continues to remain healthy as I spread the word about living life to the fullest. I certainly have fought my way back from moments that almost took my breath away forever, and I cherish moments that create memories with each breath I take. My heart is so full.”

nikkiracinec-183x3005,154 PRECIOUS MIRACLES
“This is the remarkable number of children that Adoption Associates has placed into loving homes since its creation in 1990. Two of those beautiful souls are right here in my home. I created this 5K Run/Walk five years ago as a way to celebrate adoption, promote health and wellness, and to and bring together all those who have been “touched by adoption” and/or support our mission in some way. This is one of my favorite days of the year. Changing lives … one step at a time.”

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Taxes in an election year: complications and observations

gell_marjorieBlog author and WMU-Cooley Tax Professor Professor Marjorie Gell analyzes why our tax system is so complicated. Professor Gell is the co-editor of the Guidebook to Michigan Taxes 2016 (CCH/Wolters Kluwer), as well as the Current Ex-officio and former Chair of the Taxation Section of the State Bar of Michigan. She has served on Tax Council, the governing board of the Taxation Section of the State Bar of Michigan, since 2005. In this capacity, she has served as Taxation Section Vice Chair, Treasurer, Secretary, Legislation Monitor & Public Policy Liaison, Editor-in-Chief of the Michigan Tax Lawyer, and Chair of the Taxation Section Annual Conference. On behalf of the Taxation Section, she has authored or co-authored briefs for submission to the Michigan Supreme Court and Michigan Court of Appeals.

This year, as in all election years, tax is a hot topic. As a professor who teaches federal income tax, I have a particular interest in what the candidates have to say about proposed changes to the Internal Revenue Code. Most all the candidates, no matter what their political persuasion, seem to agree on one point: the Internal Revenue Code is a virtual mess. Even so-called tax experts like myself find it complicated, and we struggle to keep up with the frequent changes that are made. So why is our tax system so complicated? For a discussion of some of the reasons, here is a link to an article I wrote a few years ago in the Michigan Bar Journal, the publication of the State Bar of Michigan, entitled 3.8 Million and Counting: the Complexity and Wordiness of Tax Law. 

There is much talk right now about the release of presidential candidate Donald Trump’s tax returns. As a tax law professor, the interesting aspect to me is the reaction that people are having. We haven’t seen the entire return, but I am guessing that Trump had a team of highly paid accountants who likely followed the law and took advantage of of every legal tax break they could find.

Most — probably all of us —do the same thing:  we apply every deduction and credit we can find to minimize our taxes, and pay the least amount possible. (Actually, as I point out in my article, the biggest tax “breaks” in the Code are ones that average citizens like myself take advantage of: the medical insurance exclusion, the mortgage interest deduction, and the 401K provisions). Yet when people see things like Donald Trump’s tax return and realize that not everyone pays taxes (or pay based on a tax rate much lower than the rest of us, as was revealed when Romney released his tax returns in the last election cycle), it creates a lot of cynicism. (“If he doesn’t have to pay, why should I?….”) Ultimately, studies have shown (see my article for cites), the cynicism can lead to compliance problems — people who decide to make things more “fair” for themselves by applying the laws more liberally than they should, or who decide not to file at all.

Is our tax system fair? Some would argue yes, and others no (as someone once said, “the only good tax is the one that doesn’t fall on you”). But whether some people pay more tax than they should, and others too little, is a public policy issue for Congress to address — ideally in a bipartisan manner. In the meantime, we all have an obligation to file our returns and pay the tax that is owed under the current law — no more, and no less.

So why so complicated? Why such a mystery?  It comes down to words. But Who’s Counting? In my article I explain.

The explanation for why tax laws are so complicated is just that: complicated. Much of the Code’s complexity, however, can be attributed to the fact that our tax rules are so voluminous. And just how voluminous are they? In the words of James Madison, “so voluminous that they cannot be read.”11 Literally. According to Olson, as of two years ago, the Code consisted of more than 3.8 million words; with tax regulations, the count jumps to more than 9.4 million words. In book form as available from tax publisher CCH, a copy of the current Code and its regulations would take up more than nine feet of shelf space.12 Let’s put this into perspective. An average reader reads 300 words per minute. At that rate, it would take almost 212 hours of uninterrupted reading to finish the Code and more than 522 hours to read the Code and regulations. In billable hours, at $200 an hour, it would cost $42,222 in legal fees to read the entire Code and $104,444 to read the Code and regulations.

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High-Speed Internet is Not a Basic Right

By Sara Kubik

Sara Kubik

Sara Kubik

Sara Kubik holds a PhD in Technology and Gerontology, a MBA in Marketing and Management, a BA in Graphic Design, and is expecting to complete her Juris Doctor degree at WMU-Cooley Law School in December 2016. She is an extern at the Speaker Law Firm, an appellate boutique law firm representing clients in the Michigan and federal appellate courts. This article was originally published by Law Technology Today on July 6, 2016.

In February 2015, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) classified broadband Internet service access as a public utility.

The move was focused around the concept of net neutrality. The FCC’s Open Internet Rules claim to protect consumers by prohibiting things like throttling data speeds or giving prioritization to higher payers of internet services.

I laughed reading these “bright line rules” because the cellular plan I’m on unabashedly states that they will throttle my data content when I reach a monthly limit. I’ve experienced this throttling; it makes viewing almost every web page impossible.

And the prohibition of speed prioritization? This same service “allows” me the option of paying more money to get a faster Internet connection.

So is the FCC’s move lip-service only? And what does this have to do with lawyers? This article is a realistic perspective on the future of high speed Internet access in rural U.S. areas. It will dispel the hype that we hear about broadband being a basic right and suggest practical solutions to the realities of Internet connectivity and web page designs in an unequal-access world.

But back to the FCC and its broadband-is-now-a-utility declaration. Here are some preliminary questions:

  1. What is a public utility? Generally speaking, utilities include things like electricity, telecommunications, water, and sewage service.
  1. Are public utilities basic rights? That’s debatable. Some would say they are not; providers can shut off service for things like non-payment of electrical bills. On the flip side, many have argued there is a basic human right to water and sanitation, something that is being challenged in the Flint, Michigan water crisis, for example.
  1. Should we lump broadband Internet access in with this group? Is it a basic right? The reality is, high speed Internet access is not a basic right for all Americans. And it never will be.

I live in a town in Michigan in a county that is classified as rural. Technically I am about one mile beyond the town’s limit. And from here, I cannot get cable, nor can I receive any type of wired-broadband Internet connectivity. And fiber optic Internet connectivity (which has the fastest Internet speeds)? Only in my dreams.

My options for Internet access at home are satellite-connectivity for any home computers or cellular-connectivity through my smart phone. Both are nowhere near as fast or maintain as consistent a connection as cabled or fiber optic Internet connections.

Now before you question if my house has running water and electricity (yes to both), I would like to also point out that I live about one mile from one of the largest universities in Michigan. I live one mile from 27,000 broadband-connected young folk! Yet I strongly believe that this Broadband-Internet-High-Speed-Is-A-Basic-Right idea is completely unachievable.

Here’s why:

  1. When it comes to cable or fiber optic lines connecting to our homes, not everyone has them and not everyone will be able to get them.

We are a large nation in terms of geographic size. Rolling out cables or fiber optics to every U.S. home location is not going to happen. (See a comparison of cable to fiber optic connectivity here.) To connect to a private home, cables and lines must either be below ground or above. So that means either digging a ditch or connecting to utility poles. Digging new ditches to everyone’s home is expensive compared to the overhead alternative. The infrastructure is already in place regarding utility poles, however, not everyone can access them.

And for those who can access the utility poles, there is a lot of fighting both amongst them and to prohibit others from accessing these passageways.

To summarize: there is too much ground to cover to install underground cable or fiber optic lines to every U.S. home, it would be too expensive to install all of those underground lines to all rural dwellings, and there are too many players in the overhead line market who can’t, or won’t, form high speed Internet agreements to serve the rural population.

Well, if we can’t be corded in rural areas, what else can we do?

Cut the cord!

But, this, too, is not an optimal solution…

  1. When it comes to cellular coverage and smart phone use, the data usage amount is routinely limited and the speed is not fast.

As mentioned above, living in a rural area and having a smart phone is not the same as living in an urban area. First, not every telecom company has service in rural areas. We still experience the “Can you hear me now?” phenomenon.

And of the smart-phone service we can get, there are issues like limited data amounts, or data plans that throttle users on so-called “unlimited” access plans.  Where this is felt the most is when we try to watch video on our smart phones. It’s a sure-fire way to hit our data cap in record time!

But that is assuming we can even see the videos. Often, and despite what the marketing may say, the speed of Internet access when using a smart phone is just plain painful. I explained the comparison of cable Internet connection versus smart phone internet connection to my mother like this: Cable is like a roaring river with rapids — you get a lot of water, but it doesn’t last too long. Smart phone access is like a long and winding stream that goes on and on — it’s a smaller amount of water, but it goes further. We, in rural areas, are most likely limited to a stream-type connection for our Internet access with our smart phones.

Well, then, what about satellite?

  1. When it comes to satellite subscriptions, the price is too high and the service is not consistent.

Satellite connections are also not as fast as wired speeds and the fees are really expensive. Plus, signals routinely drop. They drop. They drop. And then they drop. This makes Cloud-connectivity software something we try to stay clear of.

The Takeaways for Lawyers

The solution to all of this is not to force all rural inhabitants to move but to keep in mind the following …  do not forget about us, the-non-broadband group, when you design websites and digital solutions.

  • Start with mobile-optimized web pages and then do your desktop designs. One in five Americans do not have broadband access at home and also have relatively few options for getting online other than their cell phone. It’s not just we in rural America that are smart-phone dependent, though, and Pew Research has a great study on who else falls into this group. Again, remember that 20 percent of Americans are smart-phone dependent, so web pages should increasingly be designed, or at least responsive, for mobile viewing.
  • Assume we will connect to your site with our smart phones (which, like a stream, are the furthest reaching but can be the slowest in terms of speed).
  • Make it clear on your mobile-optimized sites that there may be more features on your desktop designs and provide us with a hyperlink to that site if we want to jump to it. This is an increasingly understood notion — that desktop websites have more features than mobile-optimized sites.
  • Remember that our screen sizes are smaller, so be efficient with your designs. Do not put in content that is not necessary or redundant on your mobile-optimized websites. Do not put in too many images; do not put in images that are too large in size. Law Practice Today provides an explanation on resolution, resizing, and re-sampling images. And although it loads quickly, try to limit your words, dear lawyers.
  • Drop the auto-play of video content. Even animated .gifs are potentially problematic (and highly annoying). If you want to attract rural clients, drop video content altogether!

Remember, too, that high speed Internet speeds vary depending upon what type of connection you use or have the ability to use (smart phone, satellite, cable, fiber optic). The gold star of universal broadband access is just not foreseeable given the problems noted above. It’s not a basic right; it’s not about being fair or unfair.

So let’s be realistic about what can, will, and should not be considered a basic right for the various ways to connect to the Internet in this very large country of ours. And on that note, because I wrote this article on my home computer, I must now drive into work to e-mail it.

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WMU-Cooley law students inspired at United Nations Indigenous Issues forum

unsymbolWestern Michigan University Cooley Law students Stephanie Samuels and Linda Marion attended the 15th Session of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) at United Nations Headquarters in New York City. The forum topic was Indigenous Rights and Stephanie and Linda were inspired. They share their experience below.     

We both took a course on Indigenous Rights during our participation in WMU-Cooley’s New Zealand foreign study program last winter. This eventually led us from New Zealand to New York to participate in the United Nations forum on the topic this past spring. Valmaine Toki, our law professor at the University of Waikato, encouraged us to attend the meeting. Professor Toki is an internationally respected expert in the field of Indigenous issues and the Vice Chair on the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues.

Stephanie Samuels (center)

Stephanie Samuels (center)

The theme of the 15th Annual Session of the UNPRII was “Indigenous Peoples: Conflict, Peace, and Resolution.” The topics covered included: autonomous processes and indigenous self-governance; the rights of Indigenous people to their ancestral lands and sustainable development; the effect of climate change, climate projects, and the Paris Agreement; the preservation of indigenous languages and culture; the unique role of indigenous women in addressing indigenous issues and gender equality; the role of nations in helping or hindering progress for indigenous peoples; the disproportionately high rate of suicide among indigenous youth, and many more. A special session was held to allow indigenous youth representatives to speak to the forum; this way, they were allowed to participate in the process and express their concerns directly to this powerful international body.


As WMU-Cooley Law School representatives at the forum, we acted as academic observers to the presentations made by representatives of Indigenous peoples, nations, and NGOs from all over the world. During special side events, we were able to interact with indigenous representatives as well as international dignitaries and U.S. government officials from the U.S. Mission to the United Nations. On one occasion, we met one-on-one with EPA Environmental Justice officials and a law professor heading an NGO on the subject area.

Welcome to the United Nations: Opening of the 15th Session of the UNPFII in the General Assembly Hall.

Welcome to the United Nations: Opening of the 15th Session of the UNPFII in the General Assembly Hall.

Another day, the door was opened to talk with diplomats and Indigenous representatives who assisted in drafting language related to Indigenous peoples for the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change; there were many such occasions. This was a wonderful opportunity for us — particularly since we are both interested in International Law. It allowed us to meet and interact with members of the global community and high ranking government officials. It broadened our understanding and opened doors to prospective national and international opportunities.


We are thankful to WMU-Cooley and our New Zealand Study Abroad Professor Toki for encouraging us to attend the UNPFII meeting. WMU-Cooley’s Foreign Study Office coordinated and registered us on behalf on the law school, which opened the door for us to attend. We strongly urge other students to seek out similar opportunities as part of their personal and professional development.



Official summary of the 15th Session of the UNPFII.
Official transcript and a video of the presentation by Statement delivered by National Chief Perry Bellegarde.
More information on the United Nations focus on Indigenous peoples.
The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
More information on Indigenous peoples rights as they relate to intellectual property concerns (Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore)
More on international law and intellectual property.

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